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 Outline for Chapter 8

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PostSubject: Outline for Chapter 8   16/11/08, 07:46 pm

Key Concept #1
Identifying DNA as Genetic Material

DNA was identified as the genetic material through a series of experiments.

Main Ideas-
-Griffith finds a "Transforming Principle".
-Avery identifies DNA as the transforming principle.
-Hershey and Chase confirm that DNA is the genetic material.

Key Concept #2-
Structure of DNA.

DNA structure is the same in all organisms.

Main Ideas-
-DNA is composed of four types of nucleotides.
-Watson and Crick developed and an accurate model of DNA's three-dimensional structure. (With the help of Rosalind Franklin, who produced x-ray photos of DNA that indicated it was a double helix.
-Nucleotides always pair in the same way.

Key Concept #3
DNA replication

DNA replication copies the genetic information of a cell.

Main Ideas-
-Replication copies the genetic information.
-Proteins carry out the process of replication.
-Replication is fast and accurate.


Key Concept #4
Transcription

Transcription converts a gene into a single-stranded RNA molecule.

Main Ideas-
-RNA carries DNA's instructions.
-Transcription makes three types of RNA.
-The transcription process is similar to replication.

Key Concept #5
Translation

Translation converts an mRNA message into a polypeptide, or protein.

Main Ideas-
-Amino acids are coded by mRNA
-Amino acids are linked to become a protein

Key Concept #6
Gene Expression and Regulation

Gene Expression is carefully regulated in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

Main Ideas-
-Prokaryotic cells turn genes on and off by controlling transcription.
-Eukaryotic cells regulate gene expression at many points.

Key Concept #7
Mutations

Mutations are changes in DNA that may or may not affect phenotype.

Main Ideas-
-Some mutations affect a single gene, while others affect an entire chromosome.
-Mutations may or may not affect phenotype.
-Mutations can be caused by several factors.
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